Being man's best friend,
dogs are easily the most common household pet. Some prefer big guard dogs,
others like small, furry ones. Dogs may come in all shapes and sizes, but they
all have the same biological components. This means there's a universal way of
telling if the dog is in good health or not, regardless of its breed, size, etc.
Symmetrical and well built all over, general outline a series of graceful
curves. A strong but lissom appearance.
Aristocratic. Alert with appearance of strength, endurance and speed.
Kind, even disposition.
Head and Skull
Skull of medium breadth, in proportion to length of foreface, stop well defined,
pronounced occipital bone. Nose and eye rims dark, but may be lighter in the
case of a lemon and white coloured dog. Nostrils wide, soft and moist. Muzzle
somewhat concave, ending on level with nostrils, giving a slightly dish-faced
appearance. Slight depression under eyes, cheek bones not prominent, well
developed soft lip.
Same distance from occiput as from nostrils, bright and kindly in expression.
Either hazel or brown according to colour of coat. Neither bold nor staring, not
looking down the nose.
Leathers thin, set on fairly high, lying close to head, of medium length,
slightly pointed at tips.
Jaws strong, with perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth
closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws.
Long, muscular, slightly arched, springing cleanly from shoulders and free from
Shoulders long, sloping and well laid back. Chest just wide enough for plenty of
heart room. Brisket well let down, to level with elbows. Forelegs straight and
firm, with good oval bone, with back sinews strong and visible. Knee joint flat
with front leg and protruding very little on inside. Pasterns lengthy, strong
and resilient. Slightly sloping.
Well sprung ribs carried well back gradually falling away at strong muscular and
slightly arched loins. Short-coupled. Haunch bones well spaced and prominent,
not above level of back.
Very muscular. Well turned stifles. Good expanse of first and second thigh.
Hocks well let down.
Oval, well knit, arched toes, well cushioned.
Medium length, thick at root, tapering gradually to a point. Well covered with
close hair, carried on a level with back, with no upward curl. In movement, tail
should lash from side to side.
Smooth, covering plenty of ground. Driving hind action, elbows neither in nor
out. Definitely not a hackney action.
Fine, short, hard and evenly distributed, perfectly smooth and straight with
Usual colours are lemon and white, orange and white, liver and white, and black
and white. Self colours and tricolours are also correct.
Desirable heights at withers: dogs: 63-69 cms (25-27 ins); bitches: 61-66 cms
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the
seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact
proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into